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Type2 diabetes

With type 2 diabetes, there are mainly two related problems at work. Your pancreas doesn’t produce enough insulin, a hormone that regulates the movement of sugar into your cells, and your cells respond poorly to insulin and use less sugar.
Type 2 diabetes was formerly known as adult-onset diabetes, but both type 1 and type 2 diabetes can begin in childhood and adulthood. Type 2 is more common in older adults, but the increase in the number of obese children has led to more cases of type 2 diabetes in younger people.
There is no cure for type 2 diabetes, but losing weight, eating right, and exercising can help you control the disease.If diet and exercise aren’t enough to control your blood sugar, you may also need diabetes medication or insulin therapy.
Symptoms

The signs and symptoms of type 2 diabetes often develop slowly. In fact, you can live with type 2 diabetes for years without even knowing it. If signs and symptoms are present, they may include:

Increased thirst

Frequent urination

Increased hunger

Unintentional weight loss

Fatigue

Blurred vision

Slow healing wounds

Frequent infections

Numbness or tingling in the abdomen hands or feet

Darkened areas of skin, usually in the armpits and neck

When to see a doctor

See your doctor if you notice any signs or symptoms of type 2 diabetes.

Causes

Type 2 diabetes is primarily the result of two related problems:

Muscle, fat and liver cells become insulin resistant. Because these cells don’t interact normally with insulin, they don’t absorb enough sugar.

The pancreas cannot produce enough insulin to control blood sugar levels.

The exact reason for this is unknown, but obesity and lack of exercise are key factors.

How insulin works

Insulin is a hormone that comes from the gland behind and below the stomach (pancreas).Insulin regulates how the body uses sugar in the following ways:

Sugar in the bloodstream causes the pancreas to secrete insulin.

Insulin circulates in the bloodstream, allowing sugar to enter cells.

The level of sugar in the blood decreases.

In response to this drop, the pancreas releases less insulin.

The Role of Glucose

Glucose, a sugar, is an important source of energy for the cells that make up muscles and other tissues.The use and regulation of glucose includes the following:

Glucose comes from two main sources: diet and the liver.

Glucose is absorbed into the bloodstream, where it enters the cells with the help of insulin.

Your liver stores and produces glucose.

If your glucose level is low, e.g. B. if you haven’t eaten in a while, your liver breaks down stored glycogen into glucose to keep your glucose levels in a normal range.

In type 2 diabetes, this process doesn’t work well. Instead of getting into the cells, the sugar builds up in the bloodstream. As blood sugar levels rise, the insulin-producing beta cells in the pancreas release more insulin. Eventually, these cells deteriorate and are no longer able to produce enough insulin to meet the body’s needs.In the less common type 1 diabetes, the immune system mistakenly destroys beta cells, leaving little or no insulin available to the body.

Risk Factors

Factors that may increase your risk of type 2 diabetes include:

Weight. Being overweight or obese is a big risk.

fat distribution. Storage of fat primarily in the abdomen and not in the hips and thighs indicates a higher risk.Your risk of type 2 diabetes is increased if you are a man with a waist measurement of more than 101.6 cm (40 inches) or a woman with a waist measurement of more than 88.9 cm (35 inches).

inactivity. The less active you are, the higher your risk.Physical activity helps manage weight, uses glucose for energy, and makes cells more sensitive to insulin.

family history. Your risk of type 2 diabetes is increased if your father or brother has type 2 diabetes

Race and ethnicity. Although it’s not clear why, people of certain races and ethnicities, including Black, Hispanic, Native American, and Asian and Pacific Islander people, are more likely to develop type 2 diabetes than white people.blood lipid levels. An increased risk is associated with low levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, the “good” cholesterol, and high triglyceride levels.

age. The risk of type 2 diabetes increases with age, especially after the age of 45,

prediabetes.Prediabetes is a condition in which blood sugar levels are higher than normal but not high enough to be classified as diabetes. If left untreated, prediabetes often progresses to type 2 diabetes.

Risks associated with pregnancy. Your risk of developing type 2 diabetes is increased if you developed gestational diabetes during pregnancy or if you gave birth to a baby weighing more than 4 kg.

Polycystic ovary syndrome.Polycystic ovarian syndrome, a common condition characterized by irregular menstrual periods, excessive hair growth and obesity, increases the risk of diabetes

Areas of dark skin, usually in the armpits and neck. This condition often indicates insulin resistance.

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