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Running



Running is a method of terrestrial locomotion that allows humans and other animals to move quickly on foot. Running is a gait characterized by an aerial phase with all feet off the ground (although there are exceptions).

This is in contrast to walking, where one foot is always in contact with the ground, legs are kept mostly straight, and the center of gravity bounces over the supporting leg(s) like an inverted pendulum.

  A feature of a running body from the point of view of spring-mass mechanics is that changes in kinetic and potential energy occur simultaneously within one step, with energy storage achieved through elastic tendons and muscle elasticity.

The term jogging can refer to a variety of speeds ranging from jogging to running.

marathon runners at Carlsbad Marathon, USA, 2013

Video of human running behavior

Running in humans is associated with better health and life expectancy.
Human ancestors are believed to have evolved the ability to run long distances around 2.6 million years ago, probably to hunt animals.[5] Competitive racing has evolved from religious festivals in various areas. Records of competitive racing date back to the Tailteann Games in Ireland between 632 B.C. C. and 1171 a. C.,[6][7][8] while the first recorded Olympic Games were in 776 B.C.Running has been described as the most accessible sport in the world.

Upright Stance and Slight Forward Lean

Forward lean places the runner’s center of gravity on the ball of the foot, avoiding heel strikes and facilitating the use of the foot’s spring mechanism. It also makes it easier for the runner to put his foot down in front of the center of gravity and avoid the resulting braking effect. While an upright posture is essential, a runner must maintain a relaxed physique and engage their core to maintain an upright, stable posture. This helps prevent injury as long as the body is not stiff or tense. The most common running errors are chin raises and shoulder shrugs.[50]

Cadence and Types

Exercise physiologists have found that cadence in professional runners is extremely consistent, ranging from 185 to 200 paces per minute. The main difference between long and short distance runners is stride length rather than stride speed.[51][52]
When running, the speed at which the runner is moving can be calculated by multiplying the cadence (strides per minute) by the stride length. Running is often measured in terms of pace,[53] expressed in units of minutes per mile or minutes per kilometer (the opposite of speed, in mph or km/h). Some trainers advocate training at a combination of fitness-related speeds to stimulate various physiological improvements.[54]
Different types of walking require different types of steps. When running, runners remain alert and raise their legs with shorter, faster strides. Long-distance runners tend to have more relaxed strides that vary.

Cardiovascular

While running (like any sport) has its risks of injury, there are many benefits. Some of these benefits include potential weight loss, improved cardiovascular and respiratory health (reducing the risk of cardiovascular and respiratory diseases), improved cardiovascular fitness, a reduction in total blood cholesterol levels, strengthening bones (and possibly increased bone density) and a possible strengthening of the immune system and improved self-esteem and emotional state
. [55] Running, like all forms of regular exercise, can effectively delay[56] or reverse[57] the effects of aging. Even people who have had a heart attack are 20% less likely to develop serious heart problems when they do more running or other aerobic activity.[58]
Although an optimal amount of vigorous aerobic exercise, such asmarathons) could have an adverse effect related to cardiotoxicity.[59]

Metabolic

Learn more: Neurobiological Effects of Exercise

A US Army soldier in athletic gear runs to keep fit

A woman is running in a speed suit.

Running can help people lose weight, stay fit, and improve body composition. Research suggests that an average weight person burns about 100 calories per kilometer traveled.[60] Running increases metabolism, even after running; you will burn even more calories for a short time after the race.[61] Different speeds and distances are suitable for different individual health and fitness levels.New runners need time to get in shape.
The key is consistency and a gradual increase in speed and distance.[60] The best way to run is to pay attention to how your body feels. If a runner is out of breath or feels exhausted while running, it may be beneficial to slow down the pace or try a shorter distance for a few weeks. When a runner feels that the pace or distance is no longer challenging, they may want to increase their speed or keep running.

Mental
Running can also have psychological benefits, with many participants in the sport reporting feeling euphoric and euphoric, often referred to as “runner’s high.[63] Running is often recommended as a therapy for people with clinical depression and people with addiction problems.[64] A possible benefit can be the enjoyment of nature and landscape, which also improves psychological well-being[65] (see Ecopsychology § Practical benefits).

In animal models, running has been shown to increase the number of newly formed neurons in the brain.[66] This finding could have significant implications for aging as well as learning and memory.A recent study published in Cell Metabolism also linked running to better memory and learning abilities.[67]

Running is a powerful way to relieve stress, anxiety, depression and tension. Help people struggling with seasonal depression by running outside when it’s sunny and hot. Running can improve mental alertness and also improve sleep. Both research and clinical experience have shown that exercise can be a treatment for major depression and anxiety, with some doctors even prescribing exercise for most of their patients. Running may have a longer lasting effect than antidepressant
.[68]

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