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Liver

the liver:

Is located in the upper right part of the abdominal cavity, below the diaphragm and above the stomach, right kidney and intestines.

The cone-shaped liver is a dark reddish-brown organ weighing about 3 pounds.

There are 2 different sources that supply blood to the liver, including the following:

Oxygen-rich blood flows from the hepatic artery

Nutrient-rich blood flows from the hepatic portal vein

Functions of the liver:

The liver regulates most chemical levels in the blood and excretes a product called bile. This helps carry away waste products from the liver. All the blood leaving the stomach and intestines passes through the liver. The liver processes this blood and breaks down, balances, and creates the nutrients and also metabolizes drugs into forms that are easier to use for the rest of the body or that are nontoxic. More than 500 vital functions have been identified with the liver. Some of the more well-known functions include the following:

Production of bile, which helps carry away waste and break down fats in the small intestine during digestion

Production of certain proteins for blood plasma

Production of cholesterol and special proteins to help carry fats through the body

Conversion of excess glucose into glycogen for storage (glycogen can later be converted back to glucose for energy) and to balance and make glucose as needed

Regulation of blood levels of amino acids, which form the building blocks of proteins

Processing of hemoglobin for use of its iron content (the liver stores iron)

Conversion of poisonous ammonia to urea (urea is an end product of protein metabolism and is excreted in the urine)

Clearing the blood of drugs and other poisonous substances

Regulating blood clotting

Resisting infections by making immune factors and removing bacteria from the bloodstream

Clearance of bilirubin, also from red blood cells. If there is an accumulation of bilirubin, the skin and eyes turn yellow.

When the liver has broken down harmful substances, its by-products are excreted into the bile or blood. Bile by-products enter the intestine and leave the body in the form of feces. Blood by-products are filtered out by the kidneys, and leave the body in the form of urine.

The liver contains about half a liter (13%) of the blood supply of the body at any given time. The liver consists of 2 main lobes. Both consist of 8 segments made up of 1,000 lobes (small lobes).These lobules are connected to small ducts (tubes) that connect to larger ducts to form the common hepatic duct. The hepatic duct carries bile produced by liver cells through the common bile duct to the gallbladder and duodenum (the first part of the small intestine).

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