Is generally described as a property of objects that makes those objects pleasing to the eye. Such objects include landscapes, sunsets, people, and works of art. Along with art and taste, beauty is the main theme of aesthetics, one of the main branches of philosophy. As a positive aesthetic value, ugliness stands in opposition to it as a negative counterpart. Along with truth and goodness, it is one of the transcendentals that are often considered to be the three basic
concepts of human understanding.￼
Rayonant Rosette in Notre Dame de Paris. In Gothic architecture, light was considered the most beautiful revelation of Gyod, which was announced in its design.
One difficulty in understanding beauty is that it has both objective and subjective aspects: it is seen as a property of things, but also as something that depends on the emotional response of the viewer. Because of its subjective nature, beauty is “in the eye of the beholder”. It has been argued that the subject’s ability to perceive and judge beauty, sometimes referred to as the “sense of taste”, can be trained and that expert judgments agree over the long term. This would suggest that the standards of validity of judgments of beauty are intersubjective, that is, dependent on a panel of judges, rather than wholly subjective or wholly objective.
concepts of beauty aim to capture the essence of all beautiful things. Classical ideas define beauty in terms of the relationship between the beautiful object as a whole and its parts: the parts must be in the right proportion to one another and thus form a harmonious whole. Hedonistic notions see a necessary connection between pleasure and beauty, e.g. that an object is only beautiful if it evokes disinterested pleasure. Other ideas include defining beautiful objects by their value, by the way they are treated with love, or by their function.
The classical Greek noun that best translated into the English words “beauty” or “beautiful” was κάλλος, kallos, and the adjective was καλός, kalos. However, kalos can also be translated as “good” or “of good quality” and thus has a broader meaning than just physical or material beauty. Similarly, kallos has been used differently from the English word beauty because it is primarily applied to humans and has an erotic connotation. The Greek Koine word for
beautiful was ὡραῖος, hōraios, an adjective etymologically derived from the word ὥρα, hōra, meaning “hour”. In Koine Greek, therefore, beauty was associated with “to be in his hour”. Thus a ripe fruit (of its time) was considered beautiful, while a young woman trying to appear older or an older woman trying to appear younger was not considered beautiful. In Attic Greek, hōraios had many meanings, including “youthful” and “mature old age. Another classic term in
, used in
to describe beauty, was pulchrum (Latin).
For ancient thinkers, beauty existed both in form, which is the material world, and embodied in spirit, which is the world of mental formations. Greek mythology names Helen of Troy as the most beautiful woman. Ancient Greek architecture is based on this view of symmetry and proportion.
In a fragment of the writings of Heraclitus (fragment 106) he mentions beauty saying: “To God all things are beautiful, good, right… The oldest Western theory of beauty may be can be found in the works of the first Greek philosophers of the pre-Socratic era, such as Pythagoras, who saw beauty as useful for the moral education of the soul.  He wrote about how people feel joy when they are aware of a certain kind of formal situation existing in reality, perceivable by the eye or
by the ear and discovered the underlying ones mathematical proportions in the harmonic scales of music. ] The Pythagoreans imagined the presence of beauty in universal terms, that is, they observed beauty in the heavens as they existed in a cosmological state. They saw a strong connection between mathematics and beauty. In particular, they found that objects proportioned according to the golden ratio appeared more attractive.